TTS 2018 Young Investigator Awards
Rebeca Arroyo-Hornero received a Young Investigation Award for her research in regulatory T cell therapy for transplantation. Rebeca completed her work under the supervision of Dr. Joanna Hester and Dr. Fadi Issa, principal investigators at the Transplantation Research Immunology Group at the University of Oxford. Regulatory T cells are currently being tested as a cellular therapy in transplant patients aiming at promoting transplant tolerance and reducing levels of immunosuppression chemotherapy. In this particular study it was found that expression of CD70 identifies unstable regulatory T cells that lose their suppressive abilities and, instead, induce a pro-inflammatory microenvironment and T cell proliferation. All suggests that modulation of the CD27/CD70 pathway may allow for the generation of regulatory T cells with enhanced suppressive properties after in vitro expansion.
Rebeca is currently completing her PhD at the University of Oxford, studying cellular therapies for transplantation. She is interested in discerning how regulatory T cells suppress the immune response and finding new methods for controlling the stability and suppressive activity of regulatory T cells to produce an effective clinical cellular therapy.
Dr. Yarl Balachandran was chosen as a recipient of the Young Investigator Award for her work on the viral and host cell genomic alterations found in Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder (PTLD). She completed her work as a Postdoctoral Scholar in Transplantation Surgery under the supervision of Drs. Carlos Esquivel, Sheri Krams, and Olivia Martinez. Her findings showed that key gain-of-function mutations associated with PTLD and detected in blood and cell lines are also found in the primary tumor, suggesting a role in tumorigenesis and great potential as biomarkers.
Dr. Balachandran received her undergraduate degree from Columbia University. She completed her thesis in Nobel Laureate Dr. Eric Kandel’s laboratory, studying neurotrophins and their role in learning and memory. She earned her medical degree from Harvard Medical School. For her thesis, she characterized novel therapeutics in patient-specific stem cell models at Massachusetts General Hospital. Currently, she is a Surgical Resident at Stanford University Medical Center. She was recently invited to present her findings at the National Institutes of Health and American Transplant Congress.
Florencia Bonisconti received a Young Investigator Award for her work in “Clinical Utility of a modified qRT-PCR for Trypanosoma cruzi detection in transplant patients”. Florencia completed his work in the laboratory of molecular diagnosis in Hospital Privado Universitario de Cordoba in Argentina. The laboratory started its work in Chagas Disease (CD) with the first heart transplants in recipients with CD. Since then, there was need to develop a molecular method that allows these patients’ follow-up in post-transplant. First the laboratory develops a conventional PCR, after that perform a quantitative methodology from the PCR published by Piron et al. in 2007. In this work, the authors showed the immunosuppressed patients’ follow-up with CD and the importance of an early diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi reactivation or de novo infection in these patients using this method.
Florencia Bonisconti is a Biochemistry MS. She has completed others projects receiving the TID award in 2015. Nowadays, she is writing the paper of this work for its publication and plans to start a PhD in Biochemistry.
Xiaoyong Chen received a Young Investigator Award for his work on identification of the CD23+CD43+ regulatory B cells (Breg cells). Chen completed his work under the supervision of Prof. Andy Peng Xiang, the Director of Center for Stem Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering at Sun Yat-Sen University. Results from his work identify a novel regulatory B cell population characterized as CD23 and CD43 phenotypic markers could be induced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The CD23+CD43+ Breg cells significantly inhibited the inflammatory cytokine secretion and proliferation of T cells through an IL-10-dependent pathway. These MSC-treated Breg cells may be an important regulatory B cell subset responsible for the ability of MSCs to control inflammation-related diseases or conditions, including transplantation.
Xiaoyong Chen obtained a PhD degree on June 2015, and now he is a lecturer at Sun Yat-Sen University. He is interested in understanding the therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs. One of his previous study reported that MSC infusions improve refractory chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD), a severe complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, through an increase of CD5+ regulatory B cells producing interleukin 10(IL-10). For this work, he received a Young Investigator Travel Awards in the 12th Congress of the Cell Transplant Society. He is the first author of 6 peer-reviewed publications on Leukemia, Mol Ther, Cell Mol Immunol and etc. In the future he will continue his work on immunomodulation of MSCs in inflammation-related diseases or conditions, and he will focus on their cellular and molecular mechanisms.
Fang Kuan Chiou received a Young Investigator Award for his work on “Poorer long-term survival associated with monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after solid organ transplantation in children”, which was completed under the mentorship of Dr Girish Gupte and Dr Sue Beath at the Liver Unit (including small bowel transplantation) at Birmingham Children’s Hospital in the United Kingdom. The study shows that monomorphic PTLD is associated with more advanced disease and significantly poorer prognosis compared to other histologic subtypes of PTLD, but improved remission and survival rates are achieved with the introduction of EBV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte therapy to the treatment protocol.
Fang Kuan Chiou is a paediatric gastroenterologist with a special interest in paediatric hepatology and transplantation at KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital in Singapore. He trained as a Clinical Fellow in Hepatology at the Liver Unit at Birmingham Children’s Hospital from 2016 to 2017. He aims to enhance the field of paediatric hepatology and further develop liver and intestinal transplantation services in Singapore.
Helong Dai received a Young Investigator Award for his work on a novel technique for en bloc kidney transplantation from infant donors with extremely low body weight. Dr. Dai and his colleagues completed this work in The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, China. Eight cases of en bloc kidneys from deceased infant donors younger than 5 months with low body weight (1.9-4.9 kg) were transplanted into 4 pediatrics and 4 adults. By using the donor’s distal abdominal aorta as an outflow tract, this novel en bloc kidney transplantation significantly decreased the incidence of vascular thrombosis post-transplantation and effectively expanded the organ donor pool.
Dr. Dai received his MD and PhD in China, and then began his surgical residency at The Second Xiangya Hospital. Currently, he is a post-doctoral fellow at the Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh. He is a member of TTS, AST and IPTA. His research focuses on the mechanism of long-term graft survival in kidney transplant patients; the role of mTORC2 in dendritic cells and allograft rejection; regulatory dendritic cells and their therapeutic potential.
Nicole De La Mata received a Young Investigator Award for her work on stroke mortality in kidney transplant recipients. In collaboration with Professor Angela Webster and Associate Professor Patrick Kelly, a retrospective population-based cohort of all kidney transplant recipients in Australia and New Zealand was established using data linkage. This study found that stroke mortality was substantially higher among kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population, particularly for young people and women. Also, a greater risk of stroke death was associated with earlier year of transplant, pre-existing cerebrovascular disease and graft failure.
Nicole is an early-career biostatistician working at the University of Sydney School of Public Health in Australia. She has previous experience in managing and utilizing large observational cohorts to evaluate patient outcomes and influence health policy. Her current research focuses on mortality and health outcomes in people with end-stage kidney disease, living kidney donors and organ transplant recipients. She has a particular interest in statistical methods of survival data, such as modelling in the presence of competing risks and modelling relative survival.
Reinier de Vries, MD, received a Young Investigator Award for his work on supercooling of human livers to extend the preservation time for transplantation. Together with his research team under supervision of Dr. Korkut Uygun he for the first time demonstrated the feasibility of subzero human organ preservation, significantly extending the ex vivo life of the organ with a combination of supercooled ice-free storage and recovery with subnormothermic machine perfusion.
Reinier de Vries, received both his BSc in mechanical engineering and MSc in medicine cum laude from the Technical University Delft in 2013 and The University of Amsterdam in 2018 respectively. As a postdoctoral research fellow at the Center for Engineering in Medicine of Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School he dedicates his work to bringing technological innovations to the patients' bedside. In particular, his research involves extended organ preservation and strategies to improve organ viability to expand the donor pool for transplantation.
Dr. Su Kah Goh received a Young Investigator Award for his work on "Donor-specific cell-free DNA as an emerging biomarker of organ rejection after liver transplantation”. Su Kah completed his research under the supervision of Prof Chris Christophi, Head of the Hepato-pancreato-biliary Unit (University of Melbourne) at the Austin Health, Australia and A/Prof Alexander Dobrovic, Group Leader of the Translational Genomics and Epigenomics Laboratory at the Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Australia.
His study highlighted the use of a cost-effective and simple approach to quantify donor-specific cell-free DNA in transplantation. The exploratory use of this non-invasive approach was shown to be effective for identifying recipients with biopsy-proven acute rejection after liver transplantation.
Su Kah is currently completing the submission of his PhD thesis. He has also recently recommenced surgical training to be a general surgeon. In recognition for his endeavours, Su Kah has received numerous awards, scholarships from the Royal Australasian College of Surgery, and small project grants from the Australia New Zealand Hepatic, Pancreatic and Biliary Association to expand his research interests in the field of transplantation at the Austin Health.
Christian Heim received a Young Investigator Award for his work on small molecule tyrosine kinases as preventive strategy against cardiac allograft vasculopathy. In the last years, Dr. Heim has performed several studies on treatment options of cardiac allograft vasculopathy in experimental mouse transplant models. In this particular study it was found that nintedanib reduced different growth factor receptors and hereby ameliorated the development of allograft vasculopathy in a mouse aortic transplant model.
Dr. Christian Heim is consultant cardiac surgeon at the University Clinic Erlangen and team leader of the experimental cardiac laboratory. He studied medicine at the University of Erlangen/Germany, Wellington/New Zealand, and Edmonton/Canada. He has completed a doctoral thesis on transplant immunobiology under the supervision of Prof. Ensminger, now Director of Cardiothoracic Surgery in Lübeck/Germany. After finishing his specialty surgical training for cardiothoracic surgery, Dr. Heim subsequently wrote his “Habilitation” thesis on thoracic organ transplantation at the Department of Cardiac Surgery Erlangen/Germany (Head: Prof. Weyand).
Charlotte Lee received a Young Investigator Award for her work on The Anti-Inflammatory effect of Alpha-1 antitrypsin in Hepatocyte Transplantation. Charlotte completed her work under the supervision of Dr Emer Fitzpatrick and Professor Anil Dhawan at the Institute of Liver Studies at King’s College Hospital, London. This work involved a collaboration with Professor Maria Koulmanda at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center at Harvard Medical School. This study showed in an ex vivo blood perfusion system that alpha-1 antitrypsin inhibited coagulation activation and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression when hepatocytes were added to ABO-matched blood. In a rat model of hepatocyte transplantation, treatment with alpha-1 antitrypsin significantly improved engraftment of cells at 24 and 48 hours. This work is now undergoing pre-clinical work in a rat model of metabolic liver disease before the start of a clinical trial which is due to commence shortly.
Charlotte Lee completed her PhD in September 2017 from King’s College London and is now in her first post-doctoral position in the same group. She has been involved in a number of projects throughout her PhD, one of which led to an Early Career Researcher Grant Award to allow her to investigate the potential of using cell-free DNA to track engraftment of hepatocytes. She has also done considerable work investigating the potential of neonatal donors for hepatocyte transplantation which led to a publication in Liver Transplantation.
Xiaoqian Ma received a Young Investigator Award for her work on finding Cord blood derived regulatory macrophages (Mreg) – an alternative source for Mreg-based cell therapy in transplantation. Xiaoqian completed her work under the supervision of Prof. Wei Wang, the Director of Institute for Cell Transplantation and Gene Therapy, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (CSU, China). Results of the study confirm that CB-derived Mreg has similar yield and phenotype with adult peripheral blood derived Mreg. Compared to their APB-Mreg, CB-Mreg were more potent in suppression of the allogeneic response in vitro due, at least in part, to their upregulated IDO expression. All together demonstrates CB-derived Mreg as a potential source for large-scale preparation of human Mreg to meet the demands for clinical cell therapy in immunomodulation in transplantation.
Xiaoqian Ma was awarded her associate professorship in 2016 from the Central South University. She has completed multiple projects, receiving several grants and various awards in recognition for her work. In 2012, she got the first funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, which has helped her to start her research on transplantation. She was also supported by Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China in 2017 and the Project of Health and family planning commission of Hunan Province in 2016. She received a TTS-CTS 2015 Scientific Award in Melbourne, Australia for the contribution to transplantation immunology.
Dr. Berenice Mbiribindi received a Young Investigator Award for her work on NK cell recognition of peptides encoded by EBV latent cycle proteins. Dr. Mbiribindi is currently a Postdoctoral Fellow under the mentorship of Prof Sheri M. Krams, the Director of Transplant Immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine. Since joining the Transplant Immunology Lab in the Department of Surgery at Stanford, Dr. Mbiribindi has focused on understanding how to harness NK cells to treat EBV infections. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects more than 90% of adults worldwide and is associated with several malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). She has demonstrated that latent cycle proteins from EBV can encode for peptides that bind to HLA-E. These EBV peptide: HLA-E complexes may be important in the elimination of cells infected with EBV. As NK cells are generally resistant to immunosuppression, these findings can lead to improvements in therapeutic strategies to control EBV diseases, including PTLD, post-transplant.
Dr. Mbiribindi received her PhD in Immunology and Infection from Southampton University (UK) working on NK cells. She is currently involved in several projects focusing on NK cells and she has received awards in recognition for her work. Most recently, she was awarded two fellowships from the Stanford Child Health Research Institute (CHRI) and The Transplant and Tissue Engineering Center of Excellence (TTE).
Hiroyuki Ogasawara received a Young Investigator Award for his work on the Comparison of the Transplant Efficiency between Intraportal and Intrasplenic Procedures in Hepatocyte Transplantation. Hiroyuki completed his work under the supervision of Dr. Masafumi Goto, the Professor of Division of Transplantation and Regenerative Medicine and Dr. Takashi Kamei and Dr. Michiaki Unno, the Professor of Department of Surgery at the Tohoku University. In hepatocyte transplantation, intraportal injection is regarded as the current standard procedure. However, some previous studies showed intrasplenic approach is more efficient in hepatocyte engraftment. Therefore, we examined the transplant efficiency between intraportal and intrasplenic procedures in hepatocyte transplantation using analbuminemic rat, immunohistochemical analyses (BrdU), and in vivo imaging system. The study showed that the intraportal procedure is more efficient than the intrasplenic procedure. Furthermore, the graft function in the intrasplenic group was proved to be almost entirely achieved by hepatocytes that have migrated to the liver, suggesting that hepatocyte engraftment is more dependent on the transplant-site environment than the transplant procedure.
Dr. Ogasawara works at the Department of Surgery, Tohoku University Hospital and his field of specialty is hepatic surgery and liver, kidney and pancreas transplantation. He is currently completing his Ph.D. from the Tohoku University.
Brenda Rosales received a Young Investigator Award for her work on cancer mortality in kidney transplant recipients using a national Australian and New Zealand transplant registry (ANZDATA) and respective national mortality registers. Brenda completed her work under the supervision of Prof Angela C Webster, Professor of Epidemiology at the Sydney School of Public Health in University of Sydney, and Senior Specialist in Nephrology at Westmead Hospital, NSW Australia. In this bi-national cohort, it was found that kidney transplant recipients have over three times the excess mortality of an age, sex and calendar year matched general population, and that this has remained unchanged between 1980 and 2013. There was a great degree of variability of excess mortality by cancer site, with the highest excess mortality in non-melanoma skin cancers (over 50 times that of the general population). These results demonstrate the risk of death for kidney transplant recipients, compared to the general population and may inform future research in site-specific screening strategies.
Brenda Rosales is currently completing her PhD at the Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney. Her work is informed by her four years’ experience as a Transplantation Scientist at the NSW Transplantation and Immunology Services, Australian Red Cross Blood Service and as a Research Assistant investigating blood biomarkers for breast cancer at the Surgery and Cancer Department, Imperial College London. This is her first international award.
Akhil Sharma received a Young Investigator Award for his work on Pro-Inflammatory B Cells predicting progressive early minimal renal allograft inflammation and its association with poor long term renal allograft outcomes. Akhil completed his work under the supervision of Dr. David M. Rothstein, Professor of Surgery, Medicine, and Immunology as well Pittsburgh Steelers Chair in Transplantation at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine. Results of their study demonstrate that early renal allograft inflammation was associated the development of late acute rejection. Furthermore, patients who have early renal allograft inflammation that progresses to late acute rejection were associated with worse long term clinical outcomes. Lastly, Pro-Inflammatory B cells may help identify patients with early renal allograft inflammation at risk for poor long term clinical outcomes.
Akhil Sharma completed his M.D. from Wayne State University School of Medicine. He subsequently completed his Internal Medicine Residency, General Nephrology Fellowship, and Transplant Nephrology fellowships at University of Pittsburgh. He currently is a Clinical Instructor of Medicine in the Renal-Electrolyte Division and continues to work in Dr. David M. Rothstein’s lab at the University of Pittsburgh.
Dr. Ashley Suah received a Young Investigator Award for her project entitled ‘Acquired resistance to transplantation tolerance as a result of prior pregnancy requires B cells.’ Ashley completed her work under the mentorship of Dr. Anita Chong, Director of the Transplant Immunology Research Center and Professor of Surgery at the University of Chicago. Results of Ashley’s studies provide new insights into the mechanism of pregnancy-induced sensitization by demonstrating a necessity for B cells in preventing subsequent induction of fetal/allograft-specific transplantation tolerance.
Following the completion of her second clinical year of General Surgery training at the University of Chicago, Ashley completed a two year research fellowship in Dr. Chong’s lab. She recently returned to the clinic, and is currently in her third year of residency. During her two year research fellowship, Ashley received various awards for her work related to the immunological effects of pregnancy, including the American Society of Transplant Surgeons Resident Scientist Scholarship, an American Transplant Congress Young Investigator Award, and the Advances in Organ Transplantation FellowsChoice Award. While in the lab, she also completed a Medical Ethics Fellowship at the MacLean Center at the University of Chicago.
Patrick Trotter received a Young Investigator Award for his work on the use of kidneys from donors who die following ligature asphyxiation and there effect on transplant outcomes. Patrick completed his work under the supervision of Professor Christopher Watson and Professor J Andrew Bradley at the Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge. The results of the study demonstrated that patient outcomes following transplantation of kidneys from donors who died following ligature asphyxiation were comparable to those who received kidneys from all other donors.
Patrick Trotter has just completed his PhD at the University of Cambridge investigating the multifactorial role that infections in organ donors play in organ transplantation and was the recipient of the TTS-TID travel award in 2017. Patrick has completed multiple projects during his PhD, and has received various awards for his work and has recently started working at Royal Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Marieke van der Zwan received a Young Investigator Award for her work on the efficacy of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin for glucocorticoid resistant acute kidney allograft rejection. Marieke works under the supervision of Dr. D.A. Hesselink, Dr. M.C. Clahsen-van Groningen and Prof. Dr. C.C. Baan of the Rotterdam Transplant Group (Erasmus Medical Center, The Netherlands). Her current project focusses on the long-term outcomes and adverse events of T cell depleting therapy (rabbit antithymocyte globulin and alemtuzumab) for glucocorticoid resistant acute kidney allograft rejection. Besides, she investigates biomarkers for acute kidney allograft rejection in belatacept-treated patients.
Marieke van der Zwan completed her M.D. and MSc Molecular Medicine in Erasmus Medical Center (Rotterdam, The Netherlands). Currently, she is a resident nephrology and a PhD student at the Nephrology & Transplantation Laboratory at Erasmus Medical Center. In addition, she is editor for The Netherlands Journal of Medicine and an active member for the Dutch Federation of Nephrology.
Karen Waller received a Young Investigator Award for her work on the residual risk of blood borne viruses among increased risk donor referrals in Australia. This work was completed under the supervision of Professor Angela Webster, Epidemiologist at the University of Sydney and Transplant Nephrologist at Westmead Hospital, and Associate Professor Kate Wyburn, Transplant Nephrologist and Head of Kidney Transplantation at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. Karen’s work showed that in the setting of negative testing, the residual risk of HIV among increased risk groups remains low in absolute terms. Interestingly, the risks calculated in Australia are lower than those seen in international studies (USA, Canada).
Dr Waller is undertaking a MPhil through the University of Sydney, with research focussing on the impact of blood borne viruses on transplantation in Australia. Her projects have received recognition in the form of Young Investigator Awards at national conferences, including the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand this year. She hopes to convert her research into a PhD in 2019. Karen is also a Basic Physician Trainee at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia, having successfully passed her written and clinical examinations in Adult Medicine through the Royal Australian College of Physicians this year.
Casey Ward received a Young Investigator Award for his work on the Preservation of Pancreatic Islet Grafts in the Extra-Hepatic Space with Novel Parathyroid Gland Co-transplantation. Casey completed his work under the supervision of Dr. Peter Stock, co-director of Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplant Program and Dr. Qizhi Tang, director of the Transplantation Research Laboratory at the University of California- San Francisco (UCSF). Results of the study confirm that islet transplantation can cure type 1 diabetes; however, multiple donors are needed due to extensive perioperative loss of islets away from their native blood supply. In comparison, parathyroid gland (PTG) autotransplantation in the subcutaneous (SQ) and intra-muscular (IM) sites is an established surgical procedure. In this study, we exploited the neoangiogenic and paracrine hormonal factors made by PTG for complete preservation of mature islet and stem cell grafts leading to reversal of diabetes with previously unattainable minimal mass of islets.
Casey Ward completed his M.D. from Oregon Health and Science University School of Medicine and is currently completing his General Surgery residency training at UCSF with a plan to pursue Transplant Surgery fellowship in the future. He has received multiple awards for his innovative research in islet and parathyroid gland transplantation. Furthermore, the pre-clinical data obtained from this study has led to the initiation of a Phase I/IIa clinical trial at UCSF.
Dr. Cheng Yang received a Young Investigator Award for his work on Prediction of Renal Allograft Chronic Rejection using a Model Based on Contrast Enhanced Ultrasonography. Dr. Yang completed his work under the supervision of Prof. Tongyu Zhu and Prof. Wanyuan He. In this study, Dr. Yang evaluated the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the assessment of renal allograft rejection by establishing and validating a new noninvasive index to predict chronic rejection (CR). The AUROC of this simple index is as high as 0.89. Two cut-off values were chosen to identify the absence (less than 0.36) and presence (greater than 0.70) of renal allograft CR. Using these two cut-offs, about 70% patients could be correctly diagnosed, with over 90% accuracy. The new index provides a new diagnosis model for CR.
Dr. Yang received her M.D. and PhD. from the Fudan University in Shanghai. He then completed his surgical residency at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. During the PhD training, he visited University Leicester and collaborated with Prof. Bin Yang and Prof. Michael Nicholson on the research of acute and chronic kidney injury. He is now working as a renal transplant surgeon in Department of Urology at Zhongshan Hospital. Besides TTS, Dr. Yang is also a member of AST. During 2012-2016, he received 6 awards from TTS and AST, such as Young Investigator Award and Yong Innovator Award etc. His research interests are: acute kidney injury, rejection and tolerance, immune regulation in transplantation and cell apoptosis/necroptosis.
Yuanfei Zhao received a Young Investigator Award for her work on memory Tregs with the antigen specificity in the long-term islet xenotransplantation animal models. Yuanfei is working under the supervision of Professor Philip O'Connell, the Director of the Centre for Transplant and Renal Research at the Westmead Institute for Medical Research. He was the former president of TTS from 2014 to 2016. In this study, it was found that the highly-selected population of Tregs from long-term tolerant xenotransplantation model had the more immunosuppressive function after adoptive-transfer beyond 100 days. Results currently suggest that the memory Tregs may have the potential to be one of subsets of Tregs used for cell-based therapy in xenotransplantation.
Yuanfei Zhao completed her medical degree in China, and she is currently completing her PhD in the field of transplant immunology at the Sydney University School of Medicine. She has also undertaken a project on human regulatory macrophages in allotransplant assay. Her major research interests are the cellular therapies in the kidney and islet transplantations. In the future, she will continue her work on immunological therapy after kidney and islet transplantation, and she will focus on the identification of antigen-specific Tregs to improve the efficiency in applications.